By the time the first British colonials settled in Keene in 1734, the Sokoki had been through too much. In the 16th century ships from Europe began touching on the seacoast. The Frenchman Champlain came to the lake that bears that name in 1609, the British gave the right to settle to Mason and Georges around what is now Exeter in 1623. The Puritans were down in Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth by 1621. In addition, the Dutch were
pushing the fur trade up the Hudson starting between 1609 and 1665. These events caused epidemics that killed tens of thousands, and they also set off migrations and wars that mangled peoples lives further. By the 1660s, one thousand Sokoki had sought refuge in Schaghticoke (Albany, New York), and others had fled to Odanak which is in today’s Quebec.